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Petroleum as nigerias major source of income



Petroleum as nigerian’s major source of income.

On this article we are going to discuss what is petroleum and why it is Nigerians major source of income.

Table of content 

  • What is petroleum
  • Major inportance of petroleum
  • Uses of petroleum.
  • Petroleum producing states.

What is petroleum?

Petroleum can be described as a dark,viscous liquid found naturally on beds of porous rocks beneath the earth surface. It is a very important natural mineral oil. Some of the produce of petroleum are diesel,fuel,grease and others.

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Brief explanation on how petroleum is formed.

Bitumen,consisting of petroleum,natural gas and asphalt I’d widely used around the world. Petroleum is said to have been formed from the decay of animals and plants,under very high pressure and extremely high temperature.

The petroleum rests on water,while on top of it is found natural gas. All three natural gas,petroleum and water finally got trapped between two layers of rock that would not let them escape,thereby forming the pool of petroleum known as an oil trap or oil reservoir.

Petroleum is pumped out when geologist and engineers drill oil wells into this, the flow being controlled by valves.

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Discovery of petroleum in Nigeria 

In Nigeria,the petroleum industry began to develop at about the time of the second world war.

Oil prospecting efforts in the country began at about this time,although it was not until about twenty years later that the first barrel of oil was produced.

It is therefore not surprising that nobody expected petroleum to emerge later as a mineral upon which the Nigeria economy would become almost totally dependent for its foreign exchange earnings.

contribution of petroleum to the Nigeria economy.

The impact of petroleum on Nigeria can be seen in all sector of the economy. however while some impacts have been positive others have been negative, we shall now take a look at both sides of the coin.

Positive contribution of petroleum of the Nigeria economy

Petroleum has made the following positive contributions to the Nigeria economy.

  • Increase in external trade.
  • Greater employment opportunities
  • Increase in government revenue
  • Increase in foreign exchange reserves
  • Greater capital formation.
  • Benefit of linkage effects.

Greater employment opportunities

The development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria has led to the creation of lots of employment opportunities for the nationals. Although the industry is highly capital intensive and has a greater requirements for skilled managerial,administrative and professional labour.

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Increase in government revenue

The emergency of petroleum as a growth sector of the Nigerian economy has placed more revenue at the disposal of the countrys government for instance the greatest direct tax revenue of the government is contributed by petroleum profit tax.

Increase in government revenue


The emergency of petroleum as a growth sector of Nigeria economy has place more revenue at the disposal of the country governments. For instance in government in contributed by petroleum profit tax.

Increase in foreign exchange reserves

As the country largest export product by value petroleum is also the greatest earners of foreign exchange for nigeria. It is doubtful whether all the extension construction work that took place in the country.

Negative effects of petroleum on the Nigeria economy

  1. Destruction of the agriculture base.
  2. Advertise effect of oil spillage.
  3. Atmospheric pollution.
  4. Monocultural demonstration effects in creased propensity to consume imported goods.
  5. Culture of corruption.
  6. Lastly dept creation.

Destruction of the agriculture base

the most damaging effect of petroleum on the Nigeria economy is the destruction of the commercial production of oil began,Nigeria depends on for her foreign exchange earnings on exports of agricultural commodities like cocoa,palm oil and grains from the western ,eastern and northern regions respectively.

Adverse effect of oil spillage

Oil spillage means the overflowing of petroleum from oil wells or pipe lines into immediate vicinity,which could be water or land.

Atmospheric pollution

This is another adverse effect of petroleum production on the Nigeria economy. In oil production areas gas flaring is a common sight as a mere visit to port Harcourt will confirm.the burning causes pollution of the atmosphere by releasing causes pollution of the atmosphere by releasing hydrocarbon into the air.

Culture of corruption

Petroleum has also increased the list of social vices in the country. Consequent upon huge inflow of money is caused,contract awards were freely and carelessly made.

Dept creation

It is a paradox that petroleum production and exportation created huge debts for Nigeria. The oil money that flowed in the oil money that flowed in 1970s boosted the international credit worthiness of the country.

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Meaning and Modes of Educational Philosophy




Meaning and Modes of Educational Philosophy

The word philosophy is derived from the Greek words philia (Loving) and sophia (Wisdom) and means” the love of wisdom”. This is the most popular Grecian conception of philosophy, but there are conglomerate definitions of philosophy that seem more supplementary rather than contradictory.

• Philosophy is a personal attitude to life and the universe. When a person goes through some unusual experience, we often inquire, ”How does he take it?” Or we often declare, ”He takes it philosophically”. The mature philosophical attitude is the searching and critical attitude, it is the open-minded, tolerant attitude expressed in the willingness to look at all sides of an issue. It does not shrink from facing the difficult and unresolved problems of life.
• Philosophy is a method of reflective thinking and reasoned inquiry. It involves the attempt to think through one’s problems and to face all facts all the facts involved.
• Philosophy is an attempt to gain a view of the world. It seeks to combine the conclusions of the various sciences and long human experience into some kind of consistent worldview.

Philosophy is the logical analysis of language and the clarification of the meaning of worlds and concepts.

Modes of Philosophy

1) Speculative of Philosophy

Speculative philosophy is a way of thinking systematically about everything that exists. The human mind wishes to see things as a whole. It wishes to understand how all the different things that been discovered together from some sort of meaning totality. Speculative philosophy is a search for order and wholeness, applied not to particular items or experiences but to all knowledge and all experience.

2) Prescriptive Philosophy

Prescriptive philosophy seeks to establish standards for assessing values, judging conduct and appraising art. It examines what we mean by good and bad, right and wrong, beautiful and ugly. The prescriptive philosopher seeks to discover and to recommend principles for deciding what actions and qualities are most worth-while and why they should be so.

3) Analytic Philosophy

Analytic philosophy focuses on words and meanings. The analytic philosopher examines such as ‘course’, ‘mind’, ‘academic freedom’, ‘equality of opportunity’ etc., in order to assess the different meanings they carry in different contexts. Analytic philosophy tends to be skeptical, continuous and disinclined to build systems of thought.

Philosophy of Education is the application of the knowledge of philosophy to the solution of educational problems, concept and theories. It examines, for example, concepts as equality, teaching, autonomy, freedom, morality etc., and considers their relevance to educational practice. It examines the role of aims in education as well as schools of philosophy and how they view education. Educational philosophy seeks to comprehend education in its entirety, interpreting it by means of general concepts that will guide our choice of educational ends and policies.

Educational philosophy is speculative when it seeks to establish theories of the nature of man, society and the world. Its speculative aspect on the one hand, deals with the search for values, knowledge and realities while the prescriptive aspect on the other hand is the effort towards getting the desired goals and recommending same to solve the current problems of education. Educational philosophy is analytic when it clarifies both speculative and prescriptive statements.

The Relevance of Philosophy of Education

As teachers, you might face numerous posers from your students. They may declare, ‘Sir, this course is too argumentative, it is nothing short of mudslinging among scholars’. Of course, it may sound tautological, monotonous etc., to many learners but its relevance cannot be over emphasized.
• It encourages critical examination of issues and justification for actions.
• It equips teachers with the ideas required for educational reforms and considers those changes to be based on the analysis of current practices in education in line with the values of the society.
• Educational philosophy tends to provide an insight of what education is and the role education should perform at the various stages of growth and for what category of learners.
• It gives more weight to the validity or soundness of arguments than to the authority of the person arguing a case, thereby disregarding prejudice and personal interests.
• It has an humbling effect, in other words, it compels one to keep an open mind on evidence/findings that may render one’s previous opinion less valuable.

Philosophy as a Rational Activity

Reasoning involves many things. It involves the use of deductive and inductive methods, clarity in the use of language, and regard to evidence. Deductive or inductive reasoning involves arranging certain kinds of statements in such a way that we can infer conclusion from them Deductive reasoning leads to a necessarily true conclusion whereas inductive reasoning leads to a causally true conclusion. Philosophy is a rational activity not in the sense that it gives us information about the world but in the sense that it enables us to scrutinize our belief and see whether or not they are rationally tenable. Philosophy makes us rational human beings.

Summary / Conclusion

Philosophy is a method of reflective thinking and re-saved inquiry. Generally three modes of philosophy are discussed with more explanation on speculative and prescriptive modes. The analytic approach is a combination of the former modes.

A note to keep in mind with regard to the analytic qualities of educational philosophy:
When it seeks to establish theories of the nature of man, society and the world, and in the same vein it seeks to achieve the desired goals, it assumes an analytic mode. Reader should make up the third mode (Analytic).

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Basic listening problems that affect students performance




Listening problems and how to overcome them.

It no now obvious that most students or candidates often not participate fully in their academic arena and thereby coming back home with a poor performance and most times they don’t really know where they are lacking. On this post we are going to discuss the basic problems facing students in their academics

In a classroom environment,ineffective listening can make the decisive difference between success and failure. Ineffective listening is either a result of breakdown in the listeners concentration, or a or a revelation that he or her has not learnt how to listen well. Therefore the following listening problems that affect a child’s performance in school and how to overcome them are been listed below.

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Distraction (internal or external):

you overcome interns distraction by reorientating yourself manual to think differently. External distractions, on the other Hand are overcome by changing your physical position.

Listeners Bias:

having bias means holding a person or a view about something. For example if you are averse to loudness or noise,listening to a preacher who shouts will be difficult. When you prejudge a speaker as incompetent or uninformed, you will not pay attention to the message. You can overcome this listening problems by concentrating more on the content of the message rather than on the delivery.

Emotional reaction:

if you allow reaction to what you hear or debar you from hearing more, than your emotions have constituted a listening block. for example, the masses viewed the president comment on the fuel price hike as offensive and adjustably so far. He was he been reported to have said the following: No going back the way we successfully fought against the selfishness of asuu( Academic Staff Union Of

Universities) we must successfullu fight against this selfishness. However if there had been no room for both parties to listen to each other.the problem would not have been resolved. The goal should be to respond not react.

Incorrect interpretation techniques:

you can make certain assumptions base on previous acquired knowledge and experience. However when you allow such assumption to stop you from receiving more information,which may be contrary to what you already know, it becomes a listening problem. as a result you now miss out on information that can be of importance to the overall understanding of the topic.b
Effective listening is one that interpret the. message in the light of the speakers intentions.

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rather than concentrating on what the teacher is saying you are preoccupied with what you will say in response. Although you are giving the appropriate non verbal response such as nodding to show agreement or an interested look, your mind is thinking about your next comment.

Day dreaming:

it a normal phenomenon that an average person thinks four times faster than he or she can speak, the listener tends to have enough time to digest the message with extra thinking time left over.
Another cause of day dreaming is that attention span is intermittent in that it stops and start at intervals. You mat be there physically, you body appearances and facial expressions seems to show that you are participating, but you are not there mentally. To overcome this

This habit, it is important that you prepare yourself mentally for the listening activities. Begin to view listening as an active process( not a passive one) that requires you full presence.

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listening is a mental activity that requires mental alertness. If you are mentally from studying of physically tired, concentration will be difficult. Ensure that you are well rested before lectures and other listening situations.

Incorrect note taking:

you have not taking notes correctly when you try to write everything you hear the speaker saying. By so doing the chance of missing important points are high. At the same time,notes that do not reflect the speakers central idea, main points and general conclusion are incorrect. When you do not take notes correctly what you have misinformation . the antidote to this problem is to develop your note taking skills.

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Accurate way in delivering a speech

On this great article we are going to be discussing how to deliver a well written speech

Table of content

  1. What is effective delivery.
  2. Ways of delivering effectively.
  3. Accurate tips of on speech delivery.
  4. What it actually implies.
  5. Solving some problem that might araise.

what is effective delivery?

Effective delivery can be defined as what dale Carnegie refers to as a sense of communication. He defines it as when the audience feels there is a message being delivered straight from the mind and heart the rudiments of effective delivery.

Types of speech and their functions

When we speak, we do so with a purpose or goal in mind. In other words,we speak to achieve certain desired results. The types of speech and it functions we choose for a given occasion are determined by the purpose we hope to achieve.

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Types of speech are the channel through you present your speech.
They include lectures,talk,class discussions and feedback,question and answer session,seminars etc. For examples if your purpose is to create awareness of HIV/AIDS, your channel could be in form of a lecture and speaking will function to give information on the subject. other information of speaking will function to give information on the subject.

Other functions of speaking includes making requests, asking questions,explaining and clarifying point, arguing a point of view querying a position on an issue and so on.
There are certain expectations that accompany each type of speech. one is the organization of the speech. For examples in the giving of an oral report, one would expect an introduction of the topics,goals,scope, methodology, theoretical framework,statement of findings, and conclusion. the second expectation is the delivery of your speech.

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Delivery and types of delivery

Delivery concerns how you say what you want to say,effective delivery is always proceeded by adequate preparation. Preparing for delivery implies that you have done the following:

  1. you have organized your speech in a clear format( introduction,body and conclusion).
  2. You have selected an appropriate delivery style that suits your speech settings ( for example academic,social,political or religious) you have practised your delivery. In this section we shall focus on the various types of delivery and how to select the type that best suits your speech. five major types of modes are presented ,namely,impromptus, memorized,reading,extemporaneous and international . we will also take a look at verbal and non verbal techniques that make for effective delivery.
  3. impromptus delivery: it is the type of delivery that is given on a short notice with little or no prior preparation. Examples of impromptus speeches are in class comment, closing remarks, votes of thank or welcome address. Impromptus delivery requires an ability to express in a clear, direct and organized manner.
  4. In ability to do this can result to inappropriate or irrelevant statements,reputation of already stated points and unexpressed points. The following are helpful tips when you do you do have to make impromptus speeches.
  • Keep it short and to the point’s.
  • use an example from personal experience to support your main points.
  • limit yourself to one point.
  • State your central idea or thesis and purpose clearly.

Other forms includes

4. memorized delivery: it involves memorizing and reciting tout speech,which must have been written in advance,from memory. memorized delivery has some kind of limitations.

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A. it does not allow for flexible adjustment of your audience responds.
B. it limits self confidence because your are Dependant on what you have memorized.
C. it does not allow for naturalness and creativity.
D. It does not allow for humor or further explanation and analysis during during delivery. At best memorized delivery can be used to present the introductory part of the speech for the purpose of gaining the audiences attention. It can also be used to present the main point at debates. It is however not the best mode to use except for drama presentation.

5. Reading delivery; for this mode the speaker read from a prepared text. Reading delivery helps speakers who are to public speaking to conquer the fear of forgetting what they want to say and in expressing their ideas well.

6. Interactional delivery: it involves a leader in a group who introduce the topic provoke and direct discussion. Conclusion usually reaches are enriching and well informed because of the consensual.

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7. Extemporaneous or aided delivery; similar to reading and memorized delivewhyaodes, extemporaneous delivery a speech which is given has been prepared in advance. However in different from the two types in that.

1. It is not a word for word delivery
2. it is a prepared outline of the article.

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